Publication Details

The endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): biology, management considerations, and data gaps

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Year Published

1993

Publication

In: Gillespie, Andrew R.; Parker, George R.; Pope, Phillip E.; Rink, George: eds. Proceedings of the 9th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-161. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 83-100

Abstract

The Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov, became federally listed as endangered in 1992 and is thus afforded protection under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. This insect has a very discontinuous range, with 1992 populations found in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, and New Hampshire. Karner blue larvae feed exclusively on wild lupine, Lupinus perennis L., a disturbance-adapted plant common to oak savannas, pine barrens, and lake dune complexes. Historically, Karner blue sites have been maintained by fire. Besides lupine, the Karner blue requires nectar sources for adults and possibly ants for protection of the larvae. This paper provides current information on Karner blue distribution, taxonomy, general biology, habitat requirements, management practices, and data gaps.

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Citation

Haack, Robert A. 1993. The endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): biology, management considerations, and data gaps. In: Gillespie, Andrew R.; Parker, George R.; Pope, Phillip E.; Rink, George: eds. Proceedings of the 9th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-161. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station: 83-100

Last updated on: August 11, 2006