Borate and quaternary ammonia dip diffusion to treat fungal pathogens of Metrosideros polymorpha wood
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Forest Products Journal. 71(1): ¿¿20-26.
Rapid Ohia Death is a major concern for the viability of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii and has led to restrictions on log movement. The potential for using disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) dip diffusion treatments to control the two causal fungi (Ceratocystis lukuohia and Ceratocystis huliohia) was investigated. A 10 percent boric acid equivalent dip diffusion treatment killed the pathogens in 0.5-cm-thick disks obtained from 4.0- to 5.0-cm-diameter limbs of naturally colonized trees. DOT tended to diffuse more consistently in 50- to 60-cm-long bolts of small (4.0 to 9.0 cm) and large (9.1 to 17.0 cm) diameter healthy ohia compared with those bolts naturally infected by C. lukuohia. Diffusion periods longer than 6 weeks resulted in deeper penetration. Immersion (24 h) of logs (1.3 m long; 9 to 17 cm diameter) from C. lukuohia artificially inoculated trees in two forest locations in a 15 percent DOT/1 percent DDAC solution and storage for 10 weeks before evaluation resulted in incomplete elimination of the pathogen and lower boron concentrations in the inner sapwood than outer. Further investigations are needed to explore using either higher boron concentrations or longer diffusion periods to deliver fungicidal concentrations of boron deeper within the wood matrix.
KeywordsOhia; rapid ohia death; Ceratocystis lukuohia; Ceratocystis huliohia; sodium octaborate tetrahydrate
Hughes, Marc A.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.; Cappallazzi, Jed; Mackey, Bruce; Juzwik, Jennifer; Keith, Lisa M.. 2021. Borate and quaternary ammonia dip diffusion to treat fungal pathogens of Metrosideros polymorpha wood. Forest Products Journal. 71(1): 20-26. https://doi.org/10.13073/FPJ-D-20-00068.