Publication Details

Mortality of Bark- and Wood-boring Beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionidae) in Naturally Infested Heat-treated Ash, Birch, Oak, and Pine Bolts

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Year Published

2022

Publication

Journal of Economic Entomology

Abstract

Firewood and wood packaging material (WPM) are major pathways for moving bark- and wood-infesting insects (borers). Heat treatment regulations for interstate firewood movement vary among U.S. states: from 56°C for 30 min to 71.1°C for 75 min. Current WPM international standards (ISPM 15) require heating to a minimum of 56°C for 30 min throughout the profile of the wood. Using bolts from infested ash (Fraxinus), birch (Betula), oak (Quercus), and pine (Pinus) trees in Michigan, we assessed borer mortality at core temperatures of 50, 53, 56, and 60°C maintained for 30 min in chambers set to 60, 65, 70, or 75°C. After treatment, bolts were monitored for adult emergence and later dissected to determine borer mortality rates. Mortality was high to complete for all heat treatments and increased with both increasing core and chamber temperatures. For the Agrilus (Buprestidae) species tested, there was complete mortality of Agrilus anxius on birch and Agrilus planipennis on ash when core temperatures of 56°C or higher were targeted regardless of chamber temperature. However, on oak, a few Agrilus bilineatus and Agrilus sulcicollis survived in bolts heated to 56°C in chambers at 60 and 65°C, and some A. sulcicollis survived in chambers set at 70 and 75°C. Similarly, a few pine-infesting borers survived heating to 56°C at all chamber temperatures. However, there was complete mortality in all hosts when bolts were heated to 60°C for 30 min, regardless of chamber temperature. Results are discussed in terms of current treatment regulations for firewood and WPM.

Keywords

heat sterilization; phytosanitary treatment; ISPM 15; wood borer; bark beetle

Citation

Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R. 2022. Mortality of Bark- and Wood-boring Beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionidae) in Naturally Infested Heat-treated Ash, Birch, Oak, and Pine Bolts. Journal of Economic Entomology. 12 p. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toac138.

Last updated on: September 30, 2022