Seed fall in an oldgrowth northern hardwood forest
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Res. Pap. NE-663. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 11 p.
Seed fall was measured for 11 years in a 200-year-old stand of sugar maple, yellow birch, and beech in New Hampshire. Yellow birch had 5 good seed years, sugar maple had 3, and beech had none. Viable seed fall of yellow birch began in August and continued through autumn and winter. Most of the viable sugar maple seed fell during a short period in October. Beech seed fall occurred slightly later than sugar maple. Seed losses caused by pollination or fertilization failure, abortion, incomplete development, insects, small mammals, and birds averaged about 213 of the total seed fall, but varied widely among years.
Keywordsbeech-birch-maple; seed production; seed viability
Graber, Raymond E.; Leak, William B. 1992. Seed fall in an oldgrowth northern hardwood forest. Res. Pap. NE-663. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. https://doi.org/10.2737/NE-RP-663.