Memorial Grove Hemlocks Research Natural Area
- Park Falls
- This RNA contains an excellent example of relatively undisturbed, old-growth forest dominated by eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The understory composition is typical of an old, hemlock-dominated stand.
Physical and Climatic Conditions
- Nearest weather station, with distance and direction from RNA:
- The nearest weather station is in Park Falls, Wisconsin, approximately 22 miles (35.2 km) to the west, northwest of the RNA.
- Annual precipitation (type, seasonal distribution) :
- The average annual precipitation is 33.9 inches (84.8 cm). Average snowfall is 70 inches (175 cm).
- Maximum and minimum temperatures:
- The mean annual temperature is 40.5 ºF. The maximum summer temperature is 106 ºF. and winter minimum temperature -45ºF.
- The elevation is 1560 feet to 1590 feet (475 m to 485 m).
- Geology and Soils:
- The topography is an excellent example of pitted glacial moraine, with numerous kettles. The area is a relatively level to rolling topography segment of a pitted outwash plain and is well drained. The soil is closest to Vilas Loamy Sand Series.
Ecological Classification & Inventory
- Southern Superior Uplands (212J)
- Northern Highlands Pitted Outwash (212Jm)
- Plant Communities:
- Quercus prinus, Quercus velutina, Sassafras albidum, Carya spp.
SAF Cover Types (list acres):
Kuchler Types (list acres):
|24 Hemlock-yellow birch (14)||98 Northern hardwoods-Spruce Forest (64)|
- Common Shrub Species:
- Mountain maple (Acer spicatum), fly honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis), beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta), red berried elder (Sambucus pubens), American yew (Taxus canadensis).
- Common Herbaceous Species:
- Fancy wood fern (Dryopteris intermedia), alpine enchanter's nightshade (Circaea alpina), Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense), wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis), shining clubmoss (Lycopodium lucidulum), northern wood sorrel (Oxalis montana).
- Common Mammal Species:
- Red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).
- Common Bird Species:
- Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca), black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens), solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius), golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa), brown tree creeper (Certhia discolor).
Related Reports and Publications
Bergeson, Mitchell T. 2001. Red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in hardwood forests in northeastern Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan. A master of science (wildlife ecology) thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 73 pp.
Clark, John D. 2010. Soil organic carbon content and quality in post-agricultural northern hardwood forests. phD Dissertation. Publicly accessible Penn Dissertations. Paper 257.
Tyrrell, L.E. 1991. Patterns of coarse wood debris in old-growth hemlock-hardwood forests of northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan. PhD Dissertation. University of Wisonsin, Madison, WI.
Tyrrell, Lucy E.; Crow, T.R. 1993. Analysis of structural characteristics of old-growth hemlock-hardwood forests along a temporal gradient. in John T. Curtis: Fifty years of Wisconsin plant ecology. James S. Fralish, Robert P. McIntosh, and Orie L. Loucks, editors. Wisconsin Academy of sciences, Arts, and Letters, Madison, Wisconsin. pp. 237-246.
Tyrrell, L.E.; Crow, T.R. 1994. Structural characteristics of old-growth hemlock-hardwood forests in relation to age. Ecology 75: 370-386.
Tyrrell, L.E.; Crow, T.R. 1994. Dynamics of dead wood in old-growth hemlock-hardwood forests of northern Wisconsin and northern Michigan. Can. J. For. Res. 24: 1672-1683.