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Tools & Applications


Software Description
ACORn ACORn (A Comprehensive Ozark Regeneration simulator) is a computer program that can help forest managers predict the number and species of trees that will regenerate following harvest in upland oak stands in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri and adjacent states.
ASPEN ASPEN is an empirical simulation model that projects the growth and yield of aspen (Populus tremuloides and P. tremula) stands from establishment to breakup. The model incorporates the system of equations developed from growth and yield data from throughout the range of P. tremuloides and P. tremula; the model should thus be applicable throughout the circumboreal region. The model runs on an annual time step and predicts total yields in number of trees, basal area, and biomass, as well as merchantable yields in cubic feet and cords for user-specified utilization standards, and in Scribner board feet. Outputs are in the form of stand tables and stocking guides. The model supports silvicultural operations such as thinning, as well as management for multiple products.
Cost Of Sawing Timber (COST)

The Cost of Sawing Timber (COST) Module calculates the per-minute cost of operations for a hardwood sawmill. It is a companion to the SOLVE computer program that performs a comprehensive analysis for hardwood sawmills. However, it can be used independently of SOLVE. The per-minute cost figure is calculated by the cost module based on information input by the user that can be more or less specific. This cost figure is an operating benchmark that sawmill managers need to know in order to make optimal decisions on a wide range of operational questions. The SOLVE-2003 sawmill analysis program, which serves as a tool for sawmill managers in performing a full analysis of their sawmill’s operations, uses the cost-per-minute figure in determining the breakeven log cost for logs of varying grades, diameters, lengths, and species.

Foresters' Metric Conversion

The conversion of scientific measurements has become commonplace in the fields of engineering, research, and forestry. Foresters’ Metric Conversions is a Windows-based computer program that quickly converts user-defined measurements from English to metric and from metric to English. Foresters’ Metric Conversions was derived from the publication “Metric Conversions for Foresters,” by Edwin S. Miyata, Helmuth M. Steinhilb, and Lynne A. Coyer, USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota (originally published in 1981).

Financial Ratio Analysis (FRAN)

FRAN is a computer-based, stand-alone program designed to generate important financial and operating ratios from tax and wage forms filed with the Internal Revenue Service. FRAN generates standard profitability, financial/leverage, liquidity/solvency, and activity ratios, as well as unique measures of workforce and capital cost and acquisition. Information produced by the program is of use to bankers contemplating short-term loans, to bankers and investors contemplating extending long-term credit or taking an equity position, and to management in securing loans and evaluating operating performance..

GIS-FIA Model The GIS-FIA Model was developed by Michigan Technological University in cooperation with the North Central Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research unit. The GIS-FIA Model is a geographic information system program that summarizes FIA data. The model runs from a project file in ArcView under the Windows98/NT operating system.

GMLSM: (Gypsy Moth Life System Model)

GMPHEN (Gypsy Moth Phenology Model)

The gypsy moth life system model (GMLSM) is a very complete model of the population dynamics of this insect pest as it is known to exist in North America. It simulates these dynamics within a single forest stand over a user defined time interval (no. of years). It models the growth, feeding, and mortality of the gypsy moth in a single forest stand by following a number of cohorts on a degree-day basis.

The GMPHEN model predicts the growth of gypsy moth from egg eclosion to adult emergence from the pupal stage. In this DOS program, users are provided with a menu structured access system, permitting one to supply weather data for a particular site in one of 5 formats. The program will predict instar distribution over time.


HARVEST is a timber harvest allocation model that was constructed to allow the input of specific rules to allocate forest stands for even-age harvest (clearcuts and shelterwood) and group selection, using parameters commonly found in National Forest Plan standards and guidelines. The model produces landscape patterns that have spatial attributes resulting from the initial landscape conditions and potential timber management activities. Modeling this process allows experimentation to link variation in management strategies with the resulting pattern of forest openings and the distribution of forest age classes.

The updated HARVEST Version 6.1 was released in Summer 2005.
HARVEST Lite is the educational version of the software.
i-Tree The i-Tree suite of software tools was developed to help users—regardless of community size or technical capacity—identify, understand and manage urban tree populations. Better awareness of the benefits and services provided by the urban forest resource leads to increased attention to stewardship, appreciation of operations, and investment in maintenance.
Just Enough Fine Financial Information (JEFFI)

Just Enough Fine Financial Information (JEFFI Version 3.0 or JEFFI/3) is a Microsoft Windows-based, cash flow analysis program designed to provide a straightforward, sophisticated, but simple assessment of investments in manufacturing facilities. JEFFI/3 generates discounted (net present value and internal rate of return) and non-discounted (payback period) measures of investment performance of the overall investment project. Basically, JEFFI/3 is designed to help answer common investment questions such as, “Will the investment pay for itself”, “Will creditors get paid”, and “What can investors expect to make”?

LANDIS Landscape Disturbance and Succession model LANDIS is designed to model forest succession, disturbance (including fire, wind, harvesting, insects, global change), and seed dispersal across large (>1 million ha) landscapes. LANDIS represents landscapes as a grid of cells and tracks age cohorts of each species (presence/absence or biomass) rather than individual trees.   LANDIS simulates distinct ecological processes, allowing complex interactions to play out as emergent properties of the simulation.
LORCAT LOg ReCovery Analysis Tool The LOg ReCovery Analysis Tool (LORCAT) was developed to enable researchers and mill personnel to examine the impact and relationships among various factors that influence hardwood mill recovery. LORCAT is a spreadsheet-based tool that was developed for use with the Microsoft Excel® or LibreOffice® spreadsheet applications.

The NED software is intended to help resource managers to develop goals, assess current and future conditions, and produce sustainable management plans for forest properties.

OPTIGRAMI (Optimum Grade Mix)

OPTIGRAMI (Optimum Grade Mix) is a DOS-based computer program that determines the least-cost grade mix required to produce a given cutting order for clear parts from rough lumber of known grades in a crosscut-first rough mill operation. OPTIGRAMI includes optimization for species graded under standard National Hardwood Lumber Association grade rules, as well as yellow-poplar and black walnut. Output information includes gross volume of lumber required in each lumber grade, estimated total production cost, board footage of parts generated, percent yield, and range of costs within each lumber grade for which the given solution is valid.

OUTCOMES OUTCOMES (OUTdoor COMfort Expert System), is a Windows® program that shows the shade pattern of a tree and calculates a human comfort index for any time and geographic location considering the full range of weather variables, the density of a tree crown that shades a person, and other features of the surrounding neighborhood.  The program was written to provide an easy-to-use interface and ample on-screen help.  Another program, OUTCOMES Batch, calculates the comfort index for any length of weather records.   
Pallet Costing System

The Pallet Costing System (PCS) is a computer-based, Microsoft Windows® application that computes the total and per-unit cost of manufacturing an order of wood pallets. Information about the manufacturing facility, along with the pallet-order requirements provided by the customer, is used in determining production cost. The major cost factors addressed by PCS are raw materials, labor, machine, and manufacturing overhead. Combined with information on current market demands, this cost information can assist in establishing a selling price for a pallet. PCS also functions as a “what-if” analysis tool, allowing pallet producers to evaluate the impact of changes in labor cost, species, processing steps, and other factors.

Quick-Silver (This software is available only within the Forest Service network - you will be prompted to request access.)

Quick-Silver is a program for economic analysis of long-term, on-the-ground resource management projects. It provides a consistent benefit/cost framework to determine if one management action costs less or has a better payoff than others. Quick-Silver standardizes economic analyses by creating and sharing standard project files containing one or more management alternatives for comparison. It uses a set of default management activities defined by the user.

Quick-Silver calculates economic criteria such as present net value, benefit/cost ratio, annual equivalent value, and internal rate of return. Projects with multiple investment partners or participants can be analyzed. Printed reports show cash flow details, economic returns, and summaries of costs and benefits that make up project alternatives.

For more information please contact Susan Winter.

RapidPI - Rapid Photo Interpretation Tool Provides the methodology and tools necessary to conduct a resource assessment of large areas. The tutorial gives an easy-to-learn, affordable and accessible method, using ocular photointerpretation from satellite or aerial images, to characterize large areas efficiently.
ROMI The ROugh MIll simulator (ROMI Version 4.0) is a computer software package for personal computers (PCs) that simulates current industrial practices for rip-first, chop-first, and rip and chop-first lumber processing. ROMI 4.0 accepts cutting bills with as many as 600 solid and/or panel part sizes. Plots of boards processed are easily viewed or printed as are detailed summaries of processing data (number of rips and crosscuts) and yields for each grade. ROMI 4.0 optimization algorithms are based on a red oak database containing 3,500 boards of all common National Hardwood Lumber Association grades. Even though ROMI is based on red oak, the digitized board information can be adapted and modified to several other common hardwood species.
RPA Data Wiz The RPA Data Wiz software allows users to create summary tables, graphs, and maps of RPA data with only basic computer skills and resources. With the Data Wiz volumes for growing stock, live cull, dead salvable, net growth, mortality, acreage, biomass and tree count can be estimated for a given area.
SILVAH-8 SILVAH-8 provides the user the ability to select a desired future forest type, estimate survival and success of existing tree reproduction, integrate the stocking contribution of future stump sprouts, and predict future stand composition at the onset of the stem exclusion stage. 
SILVAH-7 SILVAH is the computerized implementation of a systematic approach to silviculture, in which current conditions are identified through a systematic inventory of overstory and understory.  These conditions are evaluated using an objective set of research-based standards and the constraints and objectives of the land-manager.  Then a prescription is recommended to move the stand closer to the manager’s objectives.
SILVAH SILVAH 6.2 is still available to download, but will be phased out in favor of SILVAH 7 (above).
Spec2Harv Spectrum to Harvest - Spec2Harv was developed to automate the conversion of harvest schedules generated by the Spectrum model into script files that can be used by the HARVEST simulation model to simulate the implementation of the Spectrum schedules in a spatially explicit way.
SOLVE SOLVE is a computer program that assists the sawmill manager in improving efficiency and solving problems commonly found in hardwood sawmills. It provides information on key operational factors including log size distribution, lumber grade yields, lumber recovery factor and overrun, and breakeven log costs. With this information, the sawmill manager can determine what types of logs (species, grades, and sizes) are affordable and predict the product yield from those logs.
Stand-Damage Model The Stand-Damage Model simulates the growth of individual trees within forest stands. The user can change much about the forest and its environment: the location of the forest, its weather and soil, and the trees at the beginning of the simulation. One can try different logging practices and introduce global warming temperature changes. You can grow your own forest stand and graph the results.
Ultimate Grading and Remanufacturing System (UGRS )

UGRS (Ultimate Grading and Remanufacturing System) is the latest generation of advanced computer programs for lumber grading. It is designed to be a training and research tool that allows grading of lumber according to the 1998 National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) rules and remanufacturing for maximum dollar value.

UGRS provides a sophisticated graphical user interface that shows the board and includes all defects and cuttings, grading information, the remanufactured board, and final results.

Potential applications include online evaluation of lumber grades, research on the effects of grading rules on lumber grades and dollar value, training of graders, and studies of yield optimization and the potential value of lumber due to the remanufacturing operation.

The Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) Model

The UFORE computer model was developed to help managers and researchers quantify urban forest structure and its functions. UFORE is designed to use standardized field data from randomly located plots, and local hourly air pollution and meteorological data to quantify urban forest structure and numerous urban forest effects for cities across the world. The model calculates numerous attributes about the urban forest, including:

  • Species composition
  • Diameter distribution
  • Tree health Species diversity
  • Exotic vs. native species distribution

Last Modified: 06/15/2021